Today, Azerbaijan celebrates the national holiday of May 28 - Independence Day, Ann.az reports.
104 years ago the first democratic republic was established in the East.
The establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was announced on May 28, 1918, in Tbilisi (Georgia) by the National Council of Azerbaijan, chaired by Mahammad Amin Rasulzade, in the building of the Caucasus Viceroyalty
The Declaration of Independence of the National Council of Azerbaijan stated:
"Beginning from today, as the people of Azerbaijan have the power, Azerbaijan which covers the South-Eastern Transcaucasia is a full-fledged independent state;
The form of government of the independent Azerbaijani state is the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic;
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is going to establish kind friendly relations with all the nations, in particular, with the neighboring nations and states;
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic regardless of nationality, religion, class, or gender provides all the citizens living within its borders the political rights and citizenship right;
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic creates wider opportunities within its territory for all nations for free development;
Unless the Assembly is elected the National Council is elected by the people and the Provisional Government responsible before the National Council will govern the state."
As Mahammad Amin Rasulzadeh held talks with the Ottoman Empire in Batumi on Azerbaijan's independence, the meeting where the Declaration of Independence was announced was chaired by Deputy Chairman of the National Council of Azerbaijan Hasan bey Agayev. The meeting was chaired by Mustafa Mahmudov. , Akbar Aga Sheykhulislamov, Mehdi bey Hajibababayov, Mammad Yusif Jafarov, Khudadat bey Malik-Aslanov, Rahim bey Vakilov, Hamid bey Shahtakhtinski, Firudin bey Kocharli, Jamo bey Hajinski, Shafi bey Rustambeyov, Khosrov Pasha bey Sultanov, Khosrov Pasha bey Sultanov Javad Malik-Yeganov and Haji Molla Salim Akhundzadeh joined.
At that meeting of the National Council of Azerbaijan, the composition of the first interim government of the Popular Front led by the neutral Fatali Khan Khoyski was approved.
The composition of the first government was as follows:
Fatali khan Khoyski - Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Minister of Internal Affairs
Khosrov Pasha bey Sultanov - Minister of Defence
Mammadhasan Hajinski - Minister of Foreign Affairs
Nasib bey Yusifbeyli - Minister of Finance and Minister of Public Education
Khalil bey Khasmammadov - Minister of Justice
Mammadyusif Jafarov - Minister of Trade and Industry
Akbar Aga Sheikhulislamov - Minister of Agriculture and Minister of Labor
Khudadat bey Malik-Aslanov - Minister of Roads and Minister of Post and Telegraph
Jamo bey Hajinski - state inspector.
As Baku was under the control of Bolshevik-Dashnak forces under the leadership of Stepan Shaumyan at the time of the proclamation of the Popular Front, the Azerbaijani government temporarily operated in Ganja. On September 15, 1918, after heavy fighting, units of the APFP National Army and the Caucasian Islamic Army led by Nuru Pasha liberated Baku from Bolshevik-Dashnak and British troops. After that, the Azerbaijani government moved to Baku.
On December 7, 1918, at 13:00 in the building of Haji Zeynalabdin Tagiyev's girls' school (now the building of the Institute of Manuscripts named after Fuzuli of ANAS) the solemn opening of the Parliament of Azerbaijan took place. Chairman of the National Council of Azerbaijan Mahammad Amin Rasulzadeh delivered a congratulatory speech at the opening of the parliament.
Alimardan bey Topchubashov was elected chairman of the parliament, and Hasan bey Agayev was elected his first deputy. As Alimardan bey Topchubashov was at the Paris peace conference, the parliament was headed by Hasan bey Agayev. At the first session of the parliament, the resignation of the government of Fatali Khan Khoyski was accepted and it was decided to form a new government. Khoyski was again tasked with forming a new government.
A total of 155 sessions of the parliament were held during the existence of the Popular Front. 10 of them belong to the period of activity of the National Council of Azerbaijan (May 27 - November 19, 1918), and 145 to the period of activity of the Azerbaijani Parliament (December 7, 1918 - April 27, 1920).
More than 270 bills were submitted to the parliament, of which about 230 were adopted. MPs from 11 factions and groups took part in the preparation, discussion, and approval of parliamentary laws. There were 11 commissions in the parliament.
AXC has achieved great success in its short life. For the first time, a republic that recognizes women's suffrage and ensures gender equality, building a national army, issuing a national currency, establishing a national bank, democratization, free elections, international relations, and official recognition of Azerbaijan's independence by the international community, ensuring Azerbaijan's integrity, economic reforms have done great work in conducting and other areas. Unfortunately, the Popular Front, which lasted only 23 months, was overthrown on April 28, 1920, as a result of the Bolshevik occupation.
It should be noted that, according to the Law "On Independence Day" approved by President Ilham Aliyev on October 15, 2021, May 28 was declared Independence Day. Until this date, May 28 was marked as Republic Day.